Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an “Annex 1” country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  The Eiffel Tower in Paris, The Paris Agreement, the most ambitious agreement in history on climate change, was highlighted in green on November 4, 2016 (Photo: Jean-Baptiste Gurliat/ Paris City Hall) While the Paris Agreement finally aims to limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius during this century, numerous studies evaluating the voluntary commitments of some countries in Paris show that the cumulative effect of these emission reductions will not be large enough to keep temperatures below the limit. Indeed, the targets set by the target countries should limit the future increase in temperature between 2.7 and 3.7 degrees Celsius. At the same time, recent assessments of countries` developments in the framework of their climate targets in Paris indicate that some countries are already not meeting their commitments. According to the European Commission`s emissions database, the seven countries that have not yet ratified the agreement account for about 4% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The United States, the second largest emitter after China, accounts for 13%. The process of transposing the Paris Agreement into national agendas and implementing it has begun. The commitment of least developed countries (LDCs) is an example. The LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Development initiative, known as LDCs REED, aims to bring sustainable and clean energy to millions of energy-hungry people in LDCs, improve access to energy, create jobs and contribute to achieving sustainable development goals.  Article 28 of the agreement allows the parties to withdraw from the agreement after sending a notice of revocation to the custodian. This notification can only take place three years after the agreement for the country comes into force. The payment is made one year after the transfer.
Alternatively, the agreement provides that the withdrawal of the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, also withdraws the state from the Paris Agreement. The terms of the UNFCCC`s exit are the same as those of the Paris Agreement. There is no provision in the agreement for non-compliance. Since then, Turkey has argued that it is a developing country and that it has gained special circumstances that allow it to opt out of funding.